World Polio Day is observed on the 24th of October each year to increase awareness about the vaccination of polio and eliminate the disease. World Polio Day is an annual event that celebrates polio. Rotary International established World Polio Day more than ten years ago to mark Jonas Salk’s birth. Jonas Salk led the first team to develop an effective vaccine for poliomyelitis.
The 2022 theme chosen for World Polio Day is “A healthier future for mothers and children.
According to WHO, the poliovirus vaccine and the subsequent widespread use of oral poliovirus, created by the late Albert Sabin, led to the creation of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988.
With The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), CDC works with allies to end polio and alleviate the suffering of this terrible disease. Eliminating polio in all forms requires our ability to endure, adapt, and invent to create a world free of polio. CDC and its polio partners are working to improve polio elimination efforts to overcome the challenges caused by covid-19.
The final stronghold for the poliovirus virus in Afghanistan as well as Pakistan. Several critical issues are in the way of getting rid of the virus, including the pandemic sweeping across the globe.
Polio is a debilitating and potentially fatal infection. The cure isn’t available. However, there are effective and safe vaccines. Polio can be prevented with vaccination. This Polio vaccine, administered multiple times, is almost always safe for the child for the rest of their lives. Therefore, the method to eliminate Polio is founded on preventing infected children by immunizing them until the transmission ceases, and then the world is polio-free.
The cause of Polio can be traced to an RNA virus which is why 85% of cases are paralytic. Poliovirus is most often found in areas with insufficient sanitation. The virus can be transferred through food or water. Persons who have poliovirus can spread the infection through their urine. Additionally, contact with a poliovirus-infected individual could cause poliomyelitis.
Polio is the name given to the virus that causes Polio.
There are instances of Polio in some regions of the world. Although the number of people affected has drastically decreased, however, efforts by international organizations to eliminate Polio continue.
Polio can affect your body in different ways according to where the virus is active and attacked. Other types of Polio can be found:
- Abortive Poliomyelitis is a cause of flu-like and digestive symptoms. It is only present for several days and doesn’t cause any long-lasting problems.
- Non-paralytic Poliomyelitis can lead to aseptic meningitis and swelling of the brain area surrounding the brain. It can cause more symptoms than abortive Poliomyelitis. It may necessitate you be admitted to the hospital.
- Paralytic Poliomyelitis is when poliovirus strikes the spinal cord and brain. It could cause paralysis to the muscles which enable you to breathe, talk or swallow, and move your legs. The specific areas of the body that have been affected it’s known as spinal Polio or bulbar Polio. The two polios may occur together (bulbospinal Polio). A mere one percent of patients who have Polio develop paralytic poliomyelitis.
- Polioencephalitisis a distinctive form of Polio, which primarily affects infants. It causes swelling in the brain.
- Post-polio Syndrome is when polio-related symptoms return years after the polio-related infection.
Poliovirus is absorbed into the body through the nose or mouth. It produces additional copies (reproduces) within your stomach and throat (intestines). Sometimes, it enters the spinal cord and brain and can cause paralysis. The paralysis could affect your legs, arms, and the muscles that regulate your breathing.
You’re at the most significant risk of Polio in the event that you haven’t been vaccinated, and if you:
- Travel to or live in a region where Polio isn’t eliminated.
- Travel to or live in an area that has low sanitation.
- Are under 5.
- Are pregnant.
Do Adults Have A Chance Of Contracting Polio?
Adults can contract the polio virus. Many adults are immune because they’ve been vaccinated or had Polio. People who aren’t vaccinated may be exposed to the polio virus.
The incidence of symptomatic Polio is low in many areas of the world due to global vaccination programs. In many countries, Polio has been deemed eradicated, meaning it’s not a problem in that region. When people stop being vaccinated, Polio may begin to appear again.
The last time a case that naturally occurred (wild) Polio was reported within the U.S. was in 1979. Since then, patients have contracted in countries other than the U.S. or came due to the live polio vaccine (vaccine-derived) that is no longer available within the U.S. The last instance of vaccine-derived Polio in the U.S. was reported in 2022.
SYMPTOMS, CAUSES, AND OTHER REASONS
Between 70 and 95 95% of people infected with poliovirus do not show any symptoms. For those who do, most sufferers have the mildest version (abortive Poliomyelitis) with flu-like signs and intestinal symptoms. Polio paralysis causes the most severe symptoms, which include paralysis.
The symptoms of abortive Poliomyelitis are similar to those of many other ailments. It can occur between three and seven days after infection and can last several days. The symptoms of abortive Poliomyelitis are:
- Constipation or diarrhea.
- Sore throat.
Signs Of Non-Paralytic Poliomyelitis
Non-paralytic Poliomyelitis begins with the same symptoms as abortive. Additional symptoms start in a matter of days and include:
- Neck stiffness.
- Pins-and-needles or pain in your legs and arms.
- A severe headache.
- The sensitivity of the light (photophobia).
Paralytic Poliomyelitis Symptoms
Paralytic poliomyelitis begins with symptoms that are similar to abortive as well as non-paralytic. Other symptoms may manifest in a matter of days or weeks, such as:
- Sensitivity to contact.
- Muscle spasms.
- Poliomyelitis in your spine causes you to be unable to move your legs or arms and either (paralysis).
- The Poliomyelitis of the bulbar makes it difficult to swallow, breathe and talk.
- Bulbospinal Poliomyelitis is a sign of both bulbar and spinal Polio.
Signs And Symptoms Of The Polio Encephalitis
There are signs of polio encephalitis by themselves or by flu symptoms. Signs and symptoms include:
- Extreme fatigue (fatigue).
- Focusing issues.
How Does Polio Spread?
Polio is spread through coughing and sniffing or coming into contact with an affected individual’s poop (feces) (fecal-oral path). It is spread through:
- Washing your hands before having a bathroom visit or touching the poop (like the process of changing diapers).
- Consuming water that is contaminated or putting it in your mouth.
- Consuming foods that are contaminated by polluted water.
- Swimming in water that is contaminated. The water can be contaminated if people suffering from diarrhea swim in it.
- Sneezing or coughing.
- Being near anyone suffering from an individual with.
- Contacting surfaces that are infected.
DIAGNOSIS and TESTING
A medical professional detects Polio through a physical exam, tests body fluids, and then asks you about the symptoms you experience. It is essential to inform your doctor that you’ve recently traveled to another country.
Your doctor may take samples of your body fluids to determine if there are signs of Polio and other infections, such as:
- Spit (saliva) from your throat.
- Poop (stool).
- Cerebrospinal Fluid (liquid around your spinal cord and your brain).
Since polio-related symptoms appear much like symptoms of the flu, you can expect your physician to perform additional tests to exclude frequent illnesses.
Treatment and Management
There aren’t any specific drugs for treating the polio virus. If you have paralytic Polio, you’ll be treated with physical therapy. If your breathing muscles are weak or paralyzed, you’ll require mechanical ventilators or a machine that helps you breathe.
It is possible to reduce your symptoms:
- Consuming liquids (such as juice, water as well as broth).
- Utilizing heat packs to ease muscle aches.
- Using pain relief medications, like Ibuprofen (Advil(r), Motrin(r)).
- Physical therapy, as well as any exercise that your doctor recommends.
- A good night’s sleep is essential.
The most effective way to avoid Polio is by getting immunized. Vaccination usually occurs in the early years of childhood. If you were not vaccinated when you were an infant or aren’t sure whether you were, consult your doctor about whether you should be vaccinated.
Your physician may recommend you receive an additional dose of the polio vaccine (or be vaccinated when you’re an adult, if not been vaccinated) in the event that you:
- Are you planning on traveling to some areas of the globe in which Polio is still present?
- If you work in a laboratory, you may come in contact with the poliovirus.
- Help patients who might have been exposed to poliovirus.
In this article, we discussed World Polio Day and why it is celebrated on the 24th of October. Polio has caused many deaths and still in some parts of the world it is affecting people’s lives. Hence, it’s imperative to understand the causes, symptoms, and preventive measures of the Polio virus.